In summer 1918, with the war in deadlock, both sides increasingly presented it as a clash of values. For his part, Kaiser Wilhelm II pronounced that the fight was between ‘two approaches to the world’: ‘Either the Prussian-German-Germanic approach, right, freedom, honour, morality, or the Anglo-Saxon, which would mean enthroning the worship of gold.’ US President Wilson countered, ‘The object of this war is to deliver the free peoples of the world from the menace and the actual power of a vast military establishment, controlled by an irresponsible government.’1