The management of upland waters has profound implications for entire watershed areas in high and low latitudes, in wet as well as arid climates, in developed and developing countries. About half of the world’s population depends on rivers originating in alpine and mountainous regions. The impacts of global climate change in upland regions are complex and subject to large uncertainties. This chapter summarizes the most salient conclusions of the volume’s contributions. Among these stand the opportunities for using models to inform policies, identify interdependencies of hitherto unrelated phenomena and generate easily interpretable images, maps, and experimental data of alternative scenarios. The role of transdisciplinary work, and the possibilities of upscaling and downscaling the analysis of local and global phenomena enable better and science-based governance within and across jurisdictions. Finally, a new research agenda is identifi ed in light of the volume’s main fi ndings, that includes developing conceptual and practical notions of integrative and adaptive management to accommodate projected global change effects; promoting institutional frameworks that enable proactive management and equity along upland and lowland tracts, across countries sharing watersheds and generations.