The overarching theme of this volume is gendered differences in the impact of economic liberalization on livelihoods, employment opportunities and labour markets. As the chapters in this volume have illustrated, this requires an understanding of, fi rst, overall impact and, then, gendered differences in impact. It is now widely understood that the impact of trade and market liberalization on livelihoods and employment is diverse. Indeed, the way that women and men workers experience market and trade liberalization is determined not only by their sex but also by the sector and type of unit in which they work; by their employment status; by their race, ethnicity, age and class; by where they live and work; and by the complex interplay of all these factors.