In 1975 at the publication of Roy Bhaskar’s A Realist Theory of Science, Maurice Mandelbaum would have been 66 years old, a respected elder figure in AngloSaxon philosophy. No doubt he would have been receptive to the content of the work, and its successor, The Possibility of Naturalism.1 But it is doubtful that he read these works, or those of the related writings of Rom Harré.2 Probably, Mandelbaum was pleased by the turn toward Realism and away from the tides of logical empiricism, Ordinary Language and Common Sense Realism he had criticized throughout his career.