There are two major kinds of language problems in Pakistan:those concerning the use of language as a symbol of identity; and those concerning its use as a medium of instruction. The first feeds into the ethnic politics of Pakistan; the second into the politics of social class, deprivation, marginalization and, increasingly,of political Islam.The first may be called horizontal, affecting as it does, collectivities or would-be collectivities dispersed over the geographical boundaries of the country.The second is vertical, affecting the way social mobility and class formation are affected by language.Both are connected with politics, i.e., the way in which power is distributed in society and how it is pursued to secure goods and services for collectivities (such as ethnic groups), social classes (such as the westernized elite), and individuals.