There is an interactional turn in educational research: a recognition that research phenomena of substantive and policy interest are interactionally constituted: for example, learning and teaching of subject matter in schools; morale of students and school staff with regard to their everyday work life in school (as alienated from their work or affiliated with it); informal relations among students-including clique formation, bullying, and interethnic relations; parent and school staff relations; and learning outside school across the life span in home, community, and work settings. All these phenomena take place in concrete occasions of social interaction as sites for educative experience.