Content In-depth exploration of topics, not presentation of large amounts of infor-• mation Critical thinking and problem-solving skills•

Learners All students•

Learning environments All classrooms• As part or whole of lesson•

Instructional development constraints Minimal, given that few resources need to be developed•

Values (opinions about what is important)

about ends (learning goals) Emphasizes learning, not teaching• Th e importance of deep thinking, sharp analytical skills, and empowerment • of learners

about priorities (criteria for successful instruction) Eff ectiveness and appeal are highly valued• Effi ciency is not highly valued, for this method takes more time for interac-• tions and processing

about means (instructional methods) Values active student learning (participation)• Values respecting diff erent perspectives• Values collaboration and democratic processes• Values questioning, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills• Values creating a community of learners• Life experiences should be inseparable from learning•

about power (to make decisions about the previous three) Values empowering learners• Should be very inclusive and participatory•

Universal Methods

related to Merrill’s fi rst principles Engage learners in real-life problems, connected to their own diverse back-• grounds. Activate prior learning on which to build new knowledge. • Demonstrate critical thinking and problem-solving skills during the discus-• sion

Apply new knowledge through exercises done by individuals or small groups, • with the help of advance organizers and group feedback or refl ection. Integrate new knowledge through future interactions with others, changes • in respect for others.