Since the late 1990s there has been widespread acceptance of a shift in economic power from the nation-state to the global market. While analysts disagree on the extent of economic control that remains with governments and on the nature of the political and social realignments that have accompanied this change, virtually no one disputes that a signifi cant alteration in relationships has taken place (Lauder et al. 2006). Thus, for example, the global market price for oil, securities, or the skills of highly trained mobile teachers have marked effects on economies and education systems around the world, which governments have only a limited range of strategies to mitigate. These changes have profound implications for how we think about schooling and pedagogies. Drawing on some discussions of the nature of globalization and its implications for education (Baylis and Smith 2001; Green 1997; Rizvi 2003) this chapter develops a taxonomy that distinguishes three different ways to understand how these processes frame ideas about pedagogy associated with the global aspirations for gender equality in education.