The Indian subcontinent is a large part of Asia on the Indian tectonic plate. In addition to the islands of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, it consists of countries on the continental crust – India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan. It is surrounded by three bodies of water: the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Historically known as Hindustan during the medieval period, it is called a subcontinent because it has certain distinctive geographical and political features. Among the countries included in this region, India has the largest land area and population, followed by Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan, in that order. The estimated population of this region is 1,450 million – about 22.50 per cent of the total population of the world (Malayala Manorama, 2007). The countries of this region share certain common problems, such as high population growth, acute poverty, low levels of literacy and slow economic development. The objective of this chapter is to discuss the progress and status of lifelong education in this region with a specific focus on India.