Doctoral education has been increasingly the object of public scrutiny, policy debate and academic analysis. Critical appraisals are being made of the traditional PhD; new programs and new professional doctorates are being established; the role of supervisors is being examined and challenged; and the need for doctorates to support innovation and economic development is being actively promoted. All this is occurring in a period of significant growth in student numbers, increasing diversity in the student population, and a burgeoning international student demand.