ABSTRACT

Bullying is not an isolated problem, occurring only in a particular country or social setting. Rather, it is a pervasive behavioral problem crossing national boundaries and penetrating virtually every social setting in which people have ongoing relationships with repeated interactions over time. Schools represent a social setting common to nearly every country throughout the world. As a result, researchers worldwide have devoted considerable attention to studying bullying in schools (Espelage & Swearer, 2004; Smith et al., 1999; Olweus, 1993; Rigby, 2002), as evident in the survey of bullying conducted by Smith and others (1999) involving 21 countries in America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia.