In 1988 developmental psychologist Lenora Branch Fulani became the first woman and the first African American to get on the ballot in all fifty states as a candidate for president of the United States. She ran with the New Alliance Party, among other progressive third parties, including the Peace and Freedom Party in California and the predominantly black United Citizens Party in South Carolina. Approximately one quarter of a million people voted for her as a third-party or independent candidate. Other African Americans had launched presidential campaigns (from George Edwin Taylor in 1904 to civil rights leader Reverend Jesse Jackson in 1984); other women had run for president (from women’s suffragist Victoria Woodhull in 1872 to New York Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm in 1972); none appeared on the ballot in every state of the nation running for president.