Turkey’s relations with the US since the end of the Second World War have been summarized diplomatically in the welcoming remarks made by Secretary of State Dean Rusk to the Turkish President in April 1967. He stated that Turkey and the US were close friends and allies who independently tried to protect their national interests. 1 That friendship and alliance has endured over the past forty or so years, at times punctuated by moments of great stress. This chapter will examine the reasons for both the strengths and stresses of the US–Turkish relationship, focusing on the interaction of their national interests in the Middle East. The first part of the chapter will examine the development of the alliance since the start of the cold war through mid-2008. The second part of the chapter will consider the continuing sources of strength of the relationship from their mutuality of interests in the Middle East and the issues that induce a more independent pursuit of their sometimes incompatible national interests.