This chapter reports the results of a 6-year research project conducted by a public university in partnership with an elementary public school (Grades 1-4), both from the city of São Carlos/SP, Brazil, concerning a thematic program of applied research called “Public Teaching.” This program was sponsored by the FAPESP/São Paulo State Foundation for Research Support, as an educational public policy. The program addresses the improvement of the quality of teaching and schooling processes through an inservice teacher education program developed in the workplace.