In the years following the September 11, 2001 attacks, Muslims and Arabs in the United States have become increasingly vulnerable to stereotyping by the media, pro-Zionist lobbyists and interest groups as well as by politicians. Antiterrorism legislation has contributed to this stereotyping and vulnerability, but the inter-relationships between hostile lobbyist forces and special interests groups, particularly the Zionist lobby that often operates under the cloak of anti-terrorist campaigns and the Patriot Act, have also been major contributors to the current animosity toward Muslims and Arabs in the United States. Stereotypes were deeply embedded in popular culture long before the September 11, 2001 attacks but given the current antagonism between the United States and many predominately Muslim states, these negative images have been even more difficult to refute.