Overall the effect sizes in independent meta-analyses are low (0.14) or even negative (–0.03; Garlinger & Frank, 1986), suggesting that only one or two pupils in a class of 30 might bene t (or be harmed) from being taught in this way (Tamir, 1985). The evidence for the lack of impact (and in some cases detrimental effect) of using learning styles approaches has been demonstrated consistently in a number of research studies and meta-analyses. Positive effects are more likely to be reported by enthusiasts and in areas other than direct impact on learning outcomes, or where impact may be due to other factors, such as the use of technology (Slemmer, 2002). There is some evidence that cognitive style and task type may be connected (visualisation in some areas of mathematics is valuable, for example) and it is certainly helpful to have different representations of ideas when developing understanding, but it is unhelpful to assign learners to groups or categories on the basis of a learning style. Students who have not succeeded in early reading may well bene t from an approach which incorporates more physical movement, but this is not because they are kinaesthetic learners. The additional ingredients are more likely to be more engaged practice and more intensive tuition.