The world is at a turning point in development thinking and practice and this chapter focuses on the consequent challenges facing developing countries and the consequences for the construction industry. Charles Gore of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (Gore, 2009) has propounded the notion of 30-year cycles for the developing world. The period of 1950-1980 was an era of ‘national developmentism’ and liberation of peoples; 1980-2010 represented global integration and liberation of economies. What now, and what are the new paradigms for the next decades? Gore’s (2009) view is that the next global development cycle will be based on the principle: from global integration to global sustainable development. If such a change is to manifest itself, the construction industry must play a role in the pursuit of the goal of the provision of a sustainable environment. This chapter seeks to answer the following key questions: if developing countries are at that watershed, what are the meta-issues that will shape development over the coming decades and what challenges will be presented?