Egypt’s nuclear decision making can be divided into five different periods: initiation of the nuclear programme (1954–59), pursuit of nuclear weapons (1960–67), programme stagnation (1968–73), Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) diplomacy (1974–2005) and nuclear power expansion (2006–11). The popular uprising in early 2011, leading to the overthrow of President Hosni Mubarak, may or not usher in a new era. To discuss the historical background of Egypt’s nuclear programme, this section will examine the first four periods, and then the chapter will discuss current and future prospects for Egyptian nuclear politics.