Possession of a ‘Theory of Mind’ (ToM) permits us to reason about the mental states of others-their beliefs, desires, and intentions-and to understand and anticipate how these can differ from our own and from reality. A lack of ToM would be a formidable obstacle to all sophisticated forms of human social interaction. Without the recognition that our beliefs and those of others can be true or false, it would very often be impossible to avoid misunderstandings and to overcome conflict or mistrust.