Evidence from media and research reports suggests that contemporary South Africa is seeing an unprecedented resurgence of arguments about culture and tradition as a basis for individuals and groups to construct and perform their identities. As Thenjiwe Magwaza (2006) writes, culture is often “superimposed on many aspects of society, particularly those that deal with [girls’ and] women’s rights [and sexuality], even in contexts that one would not expect the culture discourse to be prominent in” (p. 2). Among others, culture is often used to regulate girls’ (and women’s) dress and sexuality or to explain their non-participation in decision making and other activities in the home and community, as well as their everyday burden of caring for others (family and community members) in various contexts. Furthermore, as this chapter will illustrate, ‘going back to our roots or our culture’ is seen by some sections of South African society as the most plausible solution for intervening against AIDS. It is also seen as a solution for redressing inequalities and exclusions of the apartheid era. Reclaiming the various cultural practices lost as a result of colonial and apartheid laws and practices (for example, polygamy, bride abduction, or male circumcision) is viewed as appropriate justice and as a way of addressing the many challenges individuals and communities face.