Contrary to what is often depicted in the Western mainstream media and a body of academic literature, Iranian society continues to experience economic development, modernization and urbanization, and has improved its employment and educational attainment of men and particularly women during the past three decades. Iranian society reflects a complex set of cultural, political, and demographic patterns, and understanding the process of change requires an in-depth analysis within its social context. Rather than accept the common myth that women’s low social status in Iran and other Muslim Middle East and North African (MENA) countries is solely a consequence of Islam, I question and argue that women’s status is a consequence of societal and demographic changes. In this chapter, I make a point of illustrating how socio-demographic changes contribute to social forces and continue to transform Iranian society. There is no doubt that women continue to struggle to gain equal social and legal rights, higher levels of political participation, as well as a higher level of gainful employment. At the same time, women are significant and vibrant agents of social change, and active participants in improving Iranian society and their own social status.