Taking the creation of ‘Second Lives’ as its starting point, this chapter will explore the essential question: Who or what is in control? The term ‘Second Lives’ is loaded with meanings; in this case I take Second Lives to be those experiences, both physical and abstract, gained through participatory texts. Exploring this question necessarily takes into account theories of reading and theories of play; how a reader or participant interacts with a text; and the agencies involved in the creation of such texts (such as authors, publishers, programmers, designers, or editors). This chapter considers different types of text, including printed materials and virtual environments, to discuss the role of the participant in interacting with texts on screen and on page. It debates the relationship between participant, creator, and text, and considers the agencies which play a role in this relationship.