In the twenty-fi rst century, the separation of state and church (religion) is not necessarily a pre-ordained or a normal state of affairs. Given the potential of secular and religious loyalties competing, many governments acutely feel the imperative and the need to maintain vigilance. Institutional efforts to ‘keep God in place’ are in essence a collective action challenge: how do societies ensure religion does not become a source of friction, discord and violence? What can multicultural societies do to foster inter-religious understanding? How can societies fortify themselves to come out resiliently against the forces that seek to divide and destroy in the name of God?