O'Faolain, Sean. King of the Beggars. 1938. O'Ferrall, Fergus. Catholic Emancipation. 1985.

Reynolds, James A. The Catholic Emancipation Crisis in Ireland, 1823-1829. 1954.

CELTIC REVIVAL In Victorian Ireland studies of Celtic litera-

ture, language, and antiquities became associated with cultural nationalism. Patriots and artists looked to pre-Norman Celtic Ireland and to contemporary Gaelic society for themes and symbols of Irishness.