By the end of the nineteenth century, the Zoroastrians in India, who are known as the Parsis-meaning “Persians”—had emerged as one of the most dynamic and westernized communities in India and were esteemed for their wealth and philanthropy.2 Their rise from a small and isolated community into affluent, westernized and highly educated notables in India fundamentally changed their views toward their history and identity. On the one hand, the Parsis’ vigorous espousal ofWestern cultural and religious ideals catapulted this minority sect to the center stage in Indian politics. On the other hand, they formed their identity as Zoroastrians around an understanding of pre-Islamic Iranian religious and cultural symbols. Historically, Parsi interaction with Iran and the Iranian Zoroastrian community had been minimal. Well into the eighteenth century Iran remained the epicenter of Zoroastrian scholarship and authority, but it did not significantly influence the Indian community. This changed fundamentally after the Parsis emerged from a minor religious community into a wealthy caste in India: the Parsis then gained fame for their intellectualism amongst Iranians, and Iranian Zoroastrians came to regard the Parsi community in India as most enlightened, and Bombay as the center of Zoroastrian scholarship and priestly training. The ability of community members to mobilize Zoroastrian identitarian cultural forms depended upon the articulation of this connection between the Iranian and Indian cultures and communities, locating the success of this Indian community in a glorious Persian past.3