Dramatic cases of exclusion and even the forced relocation of rural and oftentimes indigenous residents from protected areas have been well documented. Cases from North America trace the history and establishment of the ﬁrst national parks including Yellowstone (Spence 1999; Jacoby 2001), which was the model for many protected areas established worldwide prior to the 1990s. Studies of conservation areas that exclude people demonstrate how this design contributes to local tension (Neumann 1998; Buergin 2001; Brockington 2002). These types of protected area demarcations regularly have a direct, adverse eﬀect on people’s livelihoods and way of life, which engenders conﬂict and contributes to negative, sometimes hostile, attitudes toward these areas (Hough 1988; Heinen 1993; Allendorf et al. 2006; Allendorf 2007).