Introduction This chapter sets out how France and Italy deal with new religions. As a consequence of the growing interactions of European societies, problems, solutions and policies are no longer a national topic: they exceed national borders, making international comparative studies more and more necessary. Drawing upon fieldwork in Italy and France conducted between 2001 and 2008, this article addresses the question of identifying the attitude towards new religions in these two countries within the European context. The aim is to verify how the complex historic, cultural and legal realities, as well as the values of citizenship and secularization in each country, influence state recognition of religious pluralism and more particularly the state approach towards new religions. An analysis of each state’s public policy toward new religions will provide some inputs to this reflection.