This chapter is divided into four parts. It begins with a brief outline of the nature of gender, seeking to introduce readers to predominant explanations for behavioural, and other, differences between boys and girls/men and women. Second, the chapter introduces key scholarship within the field of gender and global education, focusing specifically on issues of access, participation and outcomes in education. Third, we explore the future development of gender and global education, paying particular attention to the definitions of gender equality employed in inter - national policy and scholarship, and the implications for combating gender-based discrimination in education. Last, we consider the need for ongoing monitoring of progress towards achieving gender equity in education, including the development of appropriate measures and indicators with which we can document and evaluate gender equity. This is particularly important in terms of the accountability of high-level stakeholders, such as governments and international aid agencies.