This chapter reviews first the nature of the intellectual property right (IPR), and then briefly summarizes the state of knowledge about the impact of IPR protection on developing countries, in each case drawing on the report of the Commission on Intellectual Property Rights (IPR Commission). 2 Section 3 of the chapter examines the process of policymaking on IPRs, and the interaction between developed and developing countries, and section 4 considers how research might influence policy, including the response to the IPR Commission’s report. Section 5 seeks to identify priorities for future research and to suggest an institutional framework that would help to maximize the impact of that research. The appendix suggests how one might seek to measure the development friendliness of developed-country IPR policies.