ABSTRACT

This challenge is ingrained in England’s school system as a result of waves of reform since the late 1980s. A more market-like environment for schools has been created, with much official policy faith being placed in leaders who are entrepreneurial and can heroically transform schools. School success is judged by progress measured in terms of narrow performative criteria. Innovation to improve education is therefore bent towards achievement of better grades, and scores that are important for passing the performative tests by which schools are judged and that drive national inspections.