This chapter presents the case of a nine year old boy who is amnesic as a result of congenital brain damage. Despite severe memory impairment for the events that constitute his experience, reading and vocabulary acquisition are shown to be within normal limits at age 9. This is interpreted as evidence of a dissociation between semantic and episodic memory systems. Observational data supporting this conclusion are also presented. The wider theoretical implications of this view are discussed. Methodologically, this study suggests there is value in attending to psychological variables in studies which aim to measure cognitive capabilities of brain-injured individuals.