DEVELOPING THE MODEL 1 In the early 1990s, aft er reviewing a number of books that focused on ethical decision making for educational leaders, Shapiro and Stefk ovich noted both omissions and limitations. Th ey felt the books, at that time, were focused on nonconsequential ethics having to do primarily with the ethic of justice. Laws, rules, and rights were placed at the center of the decision-making process. Instead, Shapiro and Stefk ovich wanted something more nuanced and more comprehensive to assist educational leaders in making ethical decisions.