Data on fishing from the Early Mesolithic is equivocal. During the Middle and Late Mesolithic in western Norway, however, fishing made an important contribution to subsistence. While some sites are found in fjords, most of the residential sites from the latter periods are situated at the outer coast, close to the shore, near good fishing grounds. Line sinkers of soapstone frequently occur at these sites, and at some locations with favourable conditions for the preservation of organic materials, fish bones from a variety of species and even bone fishhooks are found. Zooarchaeological analyses from seven sites (two open air and five caves or rockshelters) show that both at the outer coast and in the fjords the main catch was gadids, particularly cod, saithe and pollock. Size reconstructions based on otolith measurements from these species show that most were relatively young, 2- to 3-year-old, small fish. This agrees well with the sizes of the fishing gear, which are also generally small. Despite a strong marine focus, the Mesolithic populations were not deep-sea operators; they conducted their main fishery in protected fjords, straits and archipelagos along the western coast. Angling with hook and line seems to have been prevalent, with a lesser focus on several other methods. Because of these factors, fishing could be conducted by most group members and provisioning was a shared activity. Increased pressure to maintain control of favourable fishing grounds may have contributed to a more sedentary settlement pattern with concomitant effects on social organization and interactions.