This chapter focuses on large-scale research into early childhood education and care services in Turkey, conducted and published by leading organizations such as the World Bank, AÇEV, the ERG and the MEB, and then follow this up with a review of the social policies implemented in the country. After examining the aforementioned report, five major problematic issues regarding the current early childhood education and care (ECEC) system stood out: (1) the lack of services provided for children under the age of 3 years, (2) the low schooling ratio for children aged 36–66 months, (3) the unequal availability of ECEC services for disadvantaged groups and (4) the lack of available information regarding the quality and monitoring of ECEC services. During the chapter an attempt was made to provide detailed and statistical information and then review the current social policies regarding each issue. In conclusion, it can be said that ECEC services in Turkey are improving, but it is obvious that the current situation for ECEC is way below expectations and desired levels. Even though the government tries to intervene in the abovementioned problematic issues through social policies that are mainly decided with the collaboration of the related organizations, this intervention is insufficient with no clear follow-up. Meaning, there is no information about how social policies are working.