North Korea presents a significant challenge to international security due to its continued attempts to disrupt the global nonproliferation agenda. Pyongyang’s activities also serve to undermine the peace and stability of East Asia, particularly the threat of attacks against the neighboring states. International efforts to negotiate an end to North Korea’s nuclear and missile programs over

the past two decades have been replete with a pattern of impasse, deadlock, and progress.The United States and the international community have coordinated a variety of policy responses to deal with the challenges, including diplomatic initiatives, sanctions, and military cooperation.1