This chapter demonstrates the conflicts in Spain and Europe between 1936 and 1945 had the same roots and contained similar ingredients, despite the fact that they did not follow the same chronology. The resistance in Spain was the first and the last of the antifascist resistance movements in Europe. The chapter explains why it is necessary to include the anti-Francoist resistance within the general framework of European resistance movements. It outlines the general circumstances of the anti-Francoist guerrilla movement during the post-war years. In civil war conflict, fascism and antifascism fought each other with arms for the first time. The rupture between the histories of Spain and Europe did not take place in 1939, after the end of the Civil War, but rather in 1945 following the Allied victory. Largely organised by the Partido Comunista de Espana (PCE), the new guerrilla politica tried to break the local mentality of the neighbours in arms to form a genuine National Guerrilla Army.