Francoist historiography, and more recently scholars proclaiming themselves 'revisionists', employs the concept of terror as shorthand for the responsibility of Republican governments and institutions for the outbreak of violence. This chapter takes into account the emergence of a large number of newly powerful groups at the start of the war. The chapter brings into question long-standing distinctions between Francoist and Republican violence in which events in government territory appear to surge up in a much more uncontrolled way. The immense struggle between ideologies and the intense violence unleashed by the Spanish Civil War have led the conflict to become the most heavily studied period in the country's history. Madrid took on a particular importance for Francoists and a vast literature emerged on the 'Red Terror' that took place in the capital during the war. Only one death sentence passed by the Popular Tribunal in Malaga was carried out.