Elite sport has long been the laboratory for the introduction of biomedical technologies aimed at health optimization and performance enhancement (Hoberman 1992). In parallel, the body of the elite athlete has been the locus of experimentation of these technologies. Now, more than ever, with the advancement of biomedical technologies, elite sport is an arena where ethical questions are raised by the application of these technologies to the human body. Such questions arising at the intersection of elite sport and ethics are addressed in this chapter.