From the transportation of convicts to the moral therapy of the insane, the techniques, rationales, targets and sites of exclusionary practices proliferated over the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Over this period state agencies and expert authorities refined their efforts to classify and coercively segregate people deemed to be undesirable or dangerous. As a critical project of modern government, ‘problem populations’ (those categorised as the mad, the infectious, the deviant or the unfit) were confined to specific isolated places, and were subjected to and subjectified by treatments that spanned correction, care and control.