The term workforce development has been increasingly used to describe a range of education and training or development practices. It is generally understood to include all of human resource development, as well as the related fields of career and technical education and adult education (Jacobs and Hawley 2009). Workforce development can often be stretched to cover private sector activities that are generally thought of as the constituent parts of human resource development such as training or organizational development. However, there is a tension between the emphasis on societal outcomes for workforce development and the organizational focus for human resource development (Jacobs 2006; Hawley, forthcoming).