Problems of nation and identity and the relationship between the state and the nation have been central to the history of Spain and Portugal for centuries. The Iberian neighbours are interesting case studies because they reveal the contrasting fortunes of attempts to forge collective identities at a national and regional level. Interestingly, after twenty years of democracy, issues of nation and identity are still very much at the centre of political discourse despite the perceived wisdom that credits Spain with having dealt successfully with the problem of regional nationalism and accommodated different identities as part of the transition process. Nevertheless, Spain is regarded as ‘a laboratory for what a new Europe of regionalisms might be’.1 At the same time, the Iberian nations, who both became members of the European Union in 1986, have demonstrated acceptance of, even enthusiasm for, European political union and the pooling of sovereignty. Indeed, it may be argued that Iberia demonstrates that centre and periphery nationalisms can coexist with supranationalism in the form of plural identities.