As the contributors to this volume have shown, the People’s Republic of China is undergoing a transitional period of rapid economic and social development. How this period is managed will have significant implications for the Chinese state concerning both its internal and external security concerns. Whilst fundamentally resting upon its progression from a developing to a developed economy, this transition reflects wider issues and tensions affecting the nature of Chinese society—issues highlighted throughout this volume, from how to cope with rising societal inequalities, to countering separatism threats, to how to respond to mounting individualism. Dealing with these issues requires a necessary and continual recalibration by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) as to where its legitimacy lies and how to promote it further. As it has shown from its very origins, adaptability is key as the Party must balance against conflicting aims while maintaining its paramount position as the ultimate arbiter of power, development and security for the Chinese population.