The purpose of this chapter is to discuss some of the latest research and practice for designing and developing large-scale student assessment of knowledge and skills based on cognitive-psychological and learning principles. The assessment of student learning is attracting tremendous attention and undergoing substantial analysis. Why so much interest and analysis at this time? Efforts to improve the delivery of instruction and assessment of learning seem warranted given pressures to produce an increasingly literate workforce to keep pace with shifting labor force demands (Goldenberg, 2006).