Studies that use large-scale assessments of student achievement, also known simply as educational surveys, are a ubiquitous component of systems monitoring in education. Internationally, some of the best-known studies include the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), and the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS). Nationally, the School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) as well as its successor, the Pan-Canadian Assessment Program (PCAP) in Canada and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in the United States, supplement such international studies. Moreover, many provinces or states within a given country conduct independent educational surveys, which are administered to a representative sample or the entire population of students at regular intervals. American examples include the New Jersey Assessment of Skills and Knowledge (NJ ASK) and the Oregon Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (OAKS).