This chapter presents the reader with a short summary of the history of standard setting, a sense of the current state of affairs, guidelines for conducting standard setting, and some indication of where the field seems to be going in the near future. While the focus of this book is on education, this chapter interprets that in a more expansive way. In other words, recognizing that education includes language arts and that mathematics is important, education is also related to plumbing, medicine, law, and cosmetology. It is the author's hope that this chapter will be of interest to broadly defined practitioners.