Clients who are having diffi culty making meaning of their loss, but who have expressed at various junctures aspects of their sense-making or benefi t-fi nding processes in session. Benefi t journaling is contraindicated for individuals who (1) are still experiencing intense acute grief symptoms for whom contemplation of positive consequences associated with the loss may appear offensive; and (2) have not revealed any consequences that could be construed as positive in the therapist’s judgment.