Hungarian responses to the 1857 rebellion were defi ned to a great extent by the attitudes and strategies which developed after the Hungarian War of Independence of 1848-49. The end of the War in August 1849 marked a new historical phase with the terror of Haynau (1849-50) and the absolutist rule established directly from Austria under the Bach regime (1850-67).1 The 1848 revolution and the 1857 rebellion serve as analogies: two peoples (nations) rise against the ruling empires. In October 1857 Ernest Jones (1819-69), the Chartist, claimed: ‘No man can say “I am for Hungary and against India”. If he does so he lies against himself, against principle, against truth, against honour.’2