In the search for alternatives to privatization one of the most commonly heard calls for action is to “bring the state (back) in”. Strictly speaking, the state was never “out”—it authored and managed privatization-but scholars, activists, and policy makers alike have argued that a necessary part of countering the commercialization of public services is to defend and advance state-owned, state-funded and state-operated services such as municipal water providers, provincial electricity generators, and national health care agencies.