I will examine two very diff erent ways in which listeners’ experiences of musical works sometimes involve physical actions or events-in many instances emotions and other mental states as well. Both concern music that is often described as ‘expressive’. But they are so diff erent that I question whether it is reasonable to subsume them under any single category, whether, for instance, they are aptly characterized as two kinds of expression or expressiveness. The ﬁ rst consists in the impressions appreciators have of physical activities or events that produced the sounds they hear. The second is the tendency of listeners to engage in physical activity themselves in response to music.