The loss of biodiversity and vital ecosystem services presents an important barrier to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals to reduce poverty, hunger, and disease. Human Development depends on nature and ecosystem services: growing populations, with their associated demand for food, water, fibre and energy, have caused unprecedented changes to ecosystems. While nature has contributed to improving billions of lives, development has simultaneously damaged the ecosystems on which it depends, and this degradation is increasing (MA, 2005).